February 25, 2011

Sabin Balasa, Painter Representative of Cosmic Romanticism

Encounter in the dawn - Sabin Balasa
Encounter in the dawn

Waiting Asteptare Sabin Balasa
Waiting  / Asteptare 
Poetry and art are almost a religion to me.
I love to understand the meanings of the written words hanged in trees branches, in the eyelids of a rising sun and in the mirroring waters and to admire artworks  in museums or exhibition centers.

Song between Day and Night Cantec intre zi si noapte Sabin Balasa
Song between day and night / Cantec intre zi si noapte

Let me share with you some of the classical and contemporary artworks made by Sabin Balasa, Romanian painter "representative of  Cosmic romanticism / reprezentant al romantismului cosmic" (as he described himself) .

Universe of Love / Universul Iubirii Sabin Balasa
Universe of Love / Universul Iubirii

Sabin Balasa (1932-2008) is one of the contemporary Romanian artists: painter, writer, author and director of animated painting movies,  who gratuated the Bucharest Fine Arts Institute in 1955.
Icarus / Icar Sabin Balasa
Icarus / Icar - mural painting
He has made many works inspired by Romanian traditions, history and mythology which were exposed in many galleries in Romania and abroad.  He painted mysterious legend characters as:
"Icarus/ Icar"
"Prometheus/ Prometeu"
"Dochia's Legend / Legenda Dochiei"
or Romanians heroes as:
" Decebalus / Decebal"
"Stephen the Great/ Stefan cel Mare".

Sabin Balasa - mural painting Moldova
Moldova - mural painting

 Many of his paintings inspired by the history and poetry of Romanian  people were realised as large mural fresco paintings in the "Hall of the Footfalls / Sala Pasilor Pierduti" gallerie at the  "Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi":
Sabin Balasa - mural painting Luceafarul
Luceafarul  Eminescu
"Aspiration/ Aspiratie"
"Amphiteheatre/ Amfiteatru",
" Homage to the founders / Omagiu Intemeietorilor"
"Generations/ Generatii"
"Triumph of life/ Triumful vietii"
"Atomic Disaster/ Dezastru Atomic"
"Exodus towards the light / Exodul spre lumina"
"Luceafarul (The Evening-Star)- Eminescu"

Exodus towards the light / Exodul spre lumina
Exodus towards the light / Exodul spre lumina

Other murals were painted at "The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies/ Academia de Studii Economice, Bucuresti" and "Low Danube University of Galati/ Universitatea "Dunarea de Jos" din Galati" or in private residences.

His animated painting movies were realized in the artist's youth in the '70s, and were appreciated internationally: " The City/ Orasul" "The Wave/ Valul"   "Phoenix Bird / Pasarea Phoenix"  "Return to the Future/ Intoarcere in viitor" "The Galaxy/ Galaxia"  "Ode/ Oda" "Exodus Towards the Light/ Exodul spre lumina".

Warriors/ Razboinicii
Warriors/ Razboinicii

His galleries were admired at Roma, Moscow, Stockholm, Tbilisi, Israel, Greece, and many of his paintings obtained prizes at international painting contests: very important beings "Gold Medal" at "European Painting Competition" in Italy in 1965 and the title " Accademico delle Nazioni" in Italy in 1983.

Springtime/ Primavara

Sabin Balasa was contested by many people because his propaganda works and was considered as the "Painter of the Ceausescu's court / Pictorul de curte al sotilor Ceausescu" .

Nicolae si Elena Ceausescu painted by Sabin Balasa
Nicolae si Elena Ceausescu

For those who are not familiar with Romanian history,  Nicolae Ceausescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was the President of Romania from 1974 to 1989, President of the Romanian Council of State from 1967 to 1989 and Secretary General of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989. He was known as a Romanian Communist Dictator who was overthrown in a Romanian revolution in December 1989. He and his wife, Elena Ceausescu, were sentenced to death by a military court in a televised court session and were executed on December 25th,1989 by a firing squad in Targoviste, Romania.  


Returning to Sabin Balasa, I like his abstract works, his imagination and his "blue" obsession and I consider his "Cosmic Wedding/ Nunta Cosmica" a perfect symbol of his unusual art.

"At the full of colors wedding of the World,
Has found a place of honor
Sabin Balasa's Blue,
Lighting by Absolute!"

"La nunta de culori a lumii,
Un loc de cinste şi-a făcut
Albastrul lui Sabin Bălaşa,
Iluminat de absolut."  

fragment " Blue Bereaved/ Albastru-ndoliat",   poem wrote by Adrian Paunescu to pay homage at his death.

Cosmic Wedding/ Nunta Cosmica, Sabin Balasa
Cosmic wedding / Nunta Cosmica

February 23, 2011

Dragobete, Romanian Day of Lovers

"DRAGOBETE" is a traditional Romanian holiday, considered the first day of spring and celebrated on February 24.   It is known also as " the day when the birds are getting engaged/ ziua cand pasarile se logodesc" or the "Romanian's day of lovers/ ziua indragostitilor la romani", when Romanians celebrate the ancient love day, the rebirth of nature and the symbol of protection against diseases.

Dragobete, Romanian's day of lovers/ ziua indragostitilor la romani

In post-communist Romania it is also celebrated Valentine Day on February 14th, especially by youth, but older people considered Valentine Day as an imported American holiday and try to maintain alive the "Dragobete" roots, tradition and symbol.

Dragobete, the day when the birds are getting engaged

Anyhow, the Romanian "Dragobete" is a positive character originated from Romanian folklore considered symbol of pure love or the Romanian counterpart of Greek "Eros".  "Dragobete", named also "Dragomir", was the son of Baba Dochia (a Daco-Thracian tale said that Dochia was the sister of Decebal, the Dacian ruler). Dochia  was taken her sheep and her son up in the mountains to seek refuge from the invasion of the Romans. Although she carried 12 lambskins when runs away in the mountains, she looses them and freezes, latter being metamorphosed into a stream. Her son, Dragobete, was a hansom guy, lover of wild nature, who liked to kiss girls ;-)

First Love/ Prima Iubire - Gobelin after Springtime by Pierre Auguste Cot, Dragobete gift
First Love/ Prima Iubire - Gobelin  after "Springtime" by Pierre Auguste Cot,  my "Dragobete" gift

If  would have to believe the legend, these days would be sunny and warm, the birds will sing cheerfully starting to mate and to build their nests, the bears are stepping out from their dens and people celebrate love, some of them performing ancient magic rituals, others getting flowers and warm feeling to the loved ones.

In Romanian villages the traditions was changed over the time, but in rural communities young boys and girls still gather early in the morning and spend the day in nature, picking spring flowers, nettles or other herbs, and the boys are kissing girls saying "Dragobetele kisses girls / Dragobetele saruta fetele". Women collect morning dew from flowers (also called "the fairies smile") or clean snow and with the obtained pure water wash their face, to have a soft skin and to be lovable all the year.

A nontraditional custom said that if you step on your partner’s foot on Dragobete, you will be the one to lead the relationship ;-) - but it is just a teaser of lovers.
So, let's celebrate "Dragobete", the Romanian Day of Lovers and let's enjoy the next collage of Romanian traditional dances, masterfully danced by "Doina Oltului Romanian Folk Ensemble/ Ansamblul Popular Doina Oltului"

February 19, 2011

In Memoriam Constantin Brancusi

“ The people who call my work 'abstract' are imbeciles; what they call 'abstract' is the most realistic, because what is real is not represented by external form but by the idea behind it, the essence of things” Constantin Brancusi (February 19th, 1876 - March, 16th 1957)

 The Endless Column, Constantin Brancusi, Tg. Jiu, Romania

I was very pleased today to find out that today's Google Doodle celebrate the 135rd birthday of Constantin Brancusi. My humble homage to his opera in my previous articles:

Constantin Brancusi, the Genius Sculptor   
Constantin Brancusi - The Endless Column, The Table of Silence and The Gate of the Kiss

February 18, 2011

Berca Mud Volcanoes Reservation

In Romania, nearby Buzau, at Berca commune, the Muddy Volcanoes / Vulcanii Noroiosi are waiting to be seen. Located on the hills in the geological and botanical reservation Berca Mud Volcanoes, the mud volcanoes were created by the salty mud and natural gases eruptions at 3km deep towards the surface. The mud has white - gray color, it is cold, with some sulfur smell and very salty and is bubbling beneath the crest of the hills from small volcanoes craters. Once the mud overflow through the volcanoes mouths (with low speed and in a continuous way), it dries and creates conical-shaped structures. Some of these craters have more than 6m high and can be seen on two hills near the Berca commune: The Little Mud Volcanoes and The Big Mud Volcanoes known as Paclele Mari and Paclele Mici.

Small Activ Crater - Berca Mud Volcanoes Reservation
Small Activ Crater - Berca Mud Volcanoes Reservation,  Buzau, Romania

This phenomena was remarked in many regions: on the land in Italy, Ukraine, Siberia, Australia or underneath the North Sea and Caspian Sea. In Romania, also, in many places from Moldova and Transylvania with salty soil were observed small muddy volcanoes, but the Berca Mud Volcanoes Reservation as a whole is a unique place in Europe.

The Romanian muddy volcanoes are not hot as mud volcano from Yellowstone National Park and not so scary as the Indonesian muddy volcanoes, the Sidoarjo mud flow, which sent out in 2006 more than 30,000 m³ of mud per day and it is expected to continue for the next 30 years in same manner.

When traveling through Berca Mud Volcanoes Natural Reservation, unusual and strange feelings are a regular occurrence (I tried to capture how strange looks in my pictures). In  these mysterious and pretty amazing places where everything feels alien, the plants are missing and the whisper of wind and blurbs of the volcanoes are the only sounds you can hear.

Bubbling mud - Berca Mud Volcano
Bubbling mud - Berca Mud Volcano

The best description was realized in 1875 by Alexandru Ioan Odobescu (1834 - 1895), Romanian author, archaeologist and politician. He has written about this area in his work Pseudo-Kynegeticos / Fals tratat de vanatoare:

" There the Devil has mounted his boilers with boiling tar; below ground the muddy clods are gurgling and boiling, colder than ice, darker than fog; then, through opened mouths all over the non-drained valley, the mud is bubbling upwards, bursting out either at a palm or a fathom height; around each hole's mouth has lasted mud mound, and the drooling tar spited by Devil out of caverns, are flowing along the greasy mounds, gathers in the mud, dries in the wind, breaks in the sun-rays and spread out throughout the valley a gray and wet clay in which does not grow any knot-weed or thirstle. 

Acolo si-a aşezat Necuratul cazanele cu catran si cu smoala clocotita; pe sub pamant galgaie si fierbe glodul noroios, mai rece decat gheata, mai negru decat ceata; apoi, pe guri cascate prin tot ocolul acelei vai fara de scursoare, tasneste tina in sus, cand de o schioapa, cand de o palma, cand de un stanjen si mai mult; la fiecare gura imprejur s-a durat musuroi, si balele catranite, pe care Uciga-l-toaca le scuipa din vagauni, se scurg naclaite d-a lungul movilitelor, se aduna in namol, se usuca de vant, se crapa de soare si astern tot fundul vaii cu o huma sura si jilava, pe care nu se prinde, Doamne fereste! nici troscot, nici ciulini."

Mud Volcano, Berca, Buzau
Mud Volcano, Berca, Buzau

Getting there from Bucharest (around 3 hours drive), take the E85 road to Buzau, then take the road DN10 to Nehoiu. This road was renovated and is well marked with panels pointing towards Vulcanii Noroiosi (The Muddy Volcanoes).  At 15-20 kilometers down, turn right in Satuc village to Berca, crossing the Buzau river, then follow the road until you will see a billboard on the hill pointing to them.

Vulcanii Noroiosi(mud volcanoes) billboard on the hill
Vulcanii Noroiosi  (mud volcanoes)  billboard on the hill

There you will discover the spectacular selenar landscape with large crevasses and mud hollows that lies on several hectares of gray, dry and salty hills. Indeed, there are not very well developed tourist facilities, but it is a good choice to go there, to have a glimpse of their beauty and wilderness and to take some pictures in one of the best known geological reserves of Romania.

February 8, 2011

Prayer for Parents, by Adrian Paunescu

To our parents... wherever they are... for their love and endless support!

"One who has parents still living on Earth, not in Memories,
Is hearing even in the dreams the "crying eyes of the World"
One who has parents is not lost yet,
One who has parents has still a Past.

Cine are parinti pe pamant,nu in gand,
Mai aude si in somn ochii lumii plangand
Cine are parinti, inca nu e pierdut,
Cine are parinti are inca trecut.

fragment "The repeatable Burden / Repetabila Povara", Adrian Paunescu

Perhaps you agree that parents centered their lives around protecting and carrying for us. They loved us despite of our life choices, mistakes or weaknesses. However they are, better cherish, love and honor them ... before it's too late.

The next folk song sung by Stefan Hrusca and recited by the author itself, is dear to my heart since childhood. The lyrics were written by Adrian Paunescu and is one of the most touching poems dedicated to parents, very popular since was launched at his Literary Circle "The Flame" / Cenaclul Flacara", the Romanian Woodstock.

Prayer for parents

Enigmatically and tranquilly
While finishing their purpose
Beside us ... give up ... and die,
Our dearest, dearest parents.
God, please bring them back to us,
No matter how bad was their life,
And make them young as they once were,
Make them younger than we are.

For the ones who gave birth to us
Give an order ... Do something
To prolong their stay with us
Make them start over again.
They've paid with their life
for their sons' mistakes
God, give Eternal Life,
To our dying parents.

Behold them going away,
Behold them fading away,
Candles burning in a cuckoo's nest
As they ponder, as they snow.
Full of diseases and sufferings
All of us, are returning to the dust
As long as we are alive, as long as they are around ...
Honor and obey your parents.

The Earth is getting heavier
The departing is getting even harder
I kiss your hand, my father!
I kiss your hand, my mother!
But why are you looking at me like that
My daughter and my son?
I'll be the one to follow
My dear ones, I am leaving you as well.

I kiss your hand, my father!
I kiss your hand, my mother!
Farewell, my son!
Farewell, my daughter!
Oh my father, oh my son!
Oh my mother, oh my daughter!

Romanian lyrics:
Ruga pentru parinti

Enigmatici si cuminti
Terminandu-si rostul lor
Langa noi se sting si mor
Dragii nostri, dragi parinti.
Cheama-i Doamne, inapoi
Ca si-asa au dus-o prost
Si fa-i tineri cum au fost
Fa-i mai tineri decat noi.

Pentru cei ce ne-au facut
Da un ordin, da ceva
Sa-i mai poti intarzia
Sa o ia de la-nceput.
Au platit cu viata lor
Ale fiilor erori
Doamne, fa-i nemuritori
Pe parintii care mor.

Ia priviti-i cum se duc
Ia priviti-i cum se sting
Lumanari in cuib de cuc
Parca tac si parca ning.
Plini de boli si suferinti
Ne intoarcem in pamant
Cat mai suntem, cat mai sunt,
Mangaiati-i pe parinti.

E pamantul tot mai greu
Despartirea-i tot mai grea
Sarut mana, tatal meu!
Sarut mana, mama mea!
Dar de ce priviti asa
Fata mea si fiul meu
Eu sunt cel ce va urma
Dragii mei ma duc si eu.

Sarut mana, tatal meu!
Sarut mana, mama mea!
Ramas bun, baiatul meu!
Ramas bun, fetita mea!
Tatal meu, baiatul meu,
Mama mea, fetïta mea!

JEREMIE funds to finance SMEs

JEREMIE, Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises, "Resurse Europene comune pentru Intreprinderi de la Micro la Medii" is a common  initiative launched in 2005 of the European Commission/ Comisiei Europene together with the European Investment Bank / Grupul Bancii Europene pentru Investitii (EIB) and the European Investment Fund / Fondul  European de Investitii (EIF) in order to promote increased access to finance for the development of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs/ IMMs )/ intreprinderi mici si mijlocii  in the regions of the EU.
The implementation of JEREMIE program in Romania was agreed in 2007 on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Romania, whereby the Public Finances Ministry, and the European Investment Fund.

On February 18, 2008, the Romanian Government represented by the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), and the European Fund for Investments (EFI / FEI) signed the Financing Agreement and a letter of costs (for 100 million Euros) for the JEREMIE program in Romania.

The funds are from European Regional Development Fund / Fondul European de Dezvoltare Regionala , from the "Sectoral  Operational Program Enhancing (Increase of ) Economic Competitiveness / "Programul Operational Sectorial Cresterea Competitivitatii Economice" with a view to implementing the major intervention area "Access of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to financing / Acces la finantare pentru IMM-uri" under priority axis 1 - 'An innovative and eco-efficient production system/ Un sistem de productie inovativ si eco-eficient'.
The sole manager of JEREMIE Program in Romania is European Fund for Investment, and, according to their proposal, they approve the yearly budget for costs, after preliminary consultation with Romanian management authority.

On January 24th, 2011, were approved 315 million Euros, a new pre-financing sum to be used next two years as specific grants for the SMEs.  The "financing guarantee agreement/ acordul de garantare" was signed with the financial intermediaries BCR / Banca Comerciala Romana and Raiffeisen Bank, to implement JEREMIE risk capital funds  in Romania (perhaps bank offers will be available soon).  In 2011-2012,  SMEs / IMMs will have access to financing (with the length of the loan period up to 6 years) and to increase their competitiveness / production. (Click here to read the Romanian version of the official press release).

Do you intend to jump right in the business environment? It is time to think more about "SMEs umbrella fund" opportunities.

February 5, 2011

The Unwords, by Nichita Stanescu

He offered me a leaf like a hand with fingers.
I offered him a hand like a leaf with teeth.
He offered me a branch like an arm.
I offered him my arm like a branch.
He has leaned his trunk towards me
like an apple-tree.
I leaned my shoulder to him
like a gnarled trunk.
I heard its sap beating, quicken and quicken
like blood.
He heard my blood rising like sap, slacken and slacken.
I passed through him.
He passed through myself.
I remained a Solitary Tree.
a Lonely Man.

leaf, hand, wind, unwords

Nichita Stanescu (1933 - 1983) was a Romanian poet and essayist, who was nominated in 1979 for Nobel Prize for Literature for his contemporary (post-war) poetry works. As he defined in his Poetry / Poezia:  "Poetry is not tears, it is the act of weeping  / Poezia nu este lacrima, ea este insusi plansul"

His Inspiration was defined by himself in one of his thoughts (10th) as:
"Inspiration is the foundation of arts, in general speaking. It is like the electrical impulse which starting the thunder between two poles. When tension is created between the two poles, the thunder appears. Without thunder can not exist thunder."
"Inspiratia este fundamentul artelor, in genere. Ea este exact ca impulsul electric care starneste fulgerul intre doi poli. In momentul in care tensiunea intre doi poli se creeaza, fulgerul apare. Fara fulger nu poate sa existe fulger."

apple flowers His extensive opera was based on words usage as symbols or objects (he studied linguistics and literature.)  He likes to pun Romanian language, following his logic and his thoughts- perhaps his poems are best understood through knowledge of Romania, but I always liked to go through his verses and his reflections which deserve to be known worldwide.

"Wonder stops time, and normality, to the contrary, releases it.  Time is, in fact, light.  In this respect, the smallest unit of time is the photon.
Mirarea opreste timpul, iar firescul, dimpotriva, il declanseaza. Timpul este de fapt lumina. In acest sens, unitatea cea mai mica de timp este fotonul."
  Time as Light/ Timpul ca lumina  

I wish to mention some of the books written during his life: "The Aim of Love / Sensul iubirii" , "A Vision of Feelings/ O viziune a sentimentelor",  "The Right to Time/ Dreptul la timp" , "The Unwords / Necuvintele",  "A Land Called Romania / Un pamant numit România" "Imperfect Works / Opere imperfecte", "Knots and Marks/ Noduri si semne"

During his entire life, he tried to reach "The New Frontier of the Human Spirit / Noua frontiera a sufletului uman", describing in details his  "Longings toward the Usual/ Tanjiri spre firesc " (a posthumous volumes).

 blooming apple trees

 blooming apple branch
"Existence itself, as light’s sleep, offers evidence of its own discontinuity, that is, of time. In this respect one can consider existence as a quanta of time.
Însasi existenta, ca somn al luminii, face evidenta discontinuitatea acesteia si deci a timpului. In acest sens putem sa socotim existenta ca pe o cuanta de timp.
" Time as Light/ Timpul ca lumina

The Romanian version of  "The Unwords" poem is:


El a intins spre mine o frunza ca o mana cu degete.
Eu am intins spre el o mana ca o frunza cu dinti.
El a intins spre mine o ramura ca un brat.
Eu am intins spre el bratul ca o ramura.
El si-a inclinat spre mine trunchiul
ca un mar.
Eu mi-am inclinat spre el umarul
ca un trunchi noduros.
Auzeam cum se-nteteste seva lui batand
ca sangele.
Auzeam cum se incetineste sangele meu suind ca seva.
Eu am trecut prin el.
El a trecut prin mine.
Eu am ramas un pom singur.
Un om singur.

February 3, 2011

Turda Salt Mine, Successful PHARE 2005 Project

Turda Salt Mine / Mina de Sare Turda ( the Romanian official website is: http://www.salinaturda.eu) became the most attractive salt mine from Romania and is a good example about how can be properly used the European Funds to protect natural resources. Its restorations was realized with EU funding non-reimbursable grants accorded to the "Increasing tourist activity in the area with SPA potential: Salt Lakes, Salt Valley - Durgau area and Turda Salt Mine/  Cresterea atractivitatii turistice a zonei cu potential balnear Lacurile Sãrate-Zona Durgãu-Valea Sãratã si Salina Turda" project in the program " PHARE CES 2005".

Turda Salt Mine - top view after restoration using European grants
Turda Salt Mine - top view after restoration using European grants

 The restoration was started in 2008 and the total EU grants approved to be used was 5.807.120 Euro (Romanian contribution: 950000 Euro and  European funds: 4857120 Euro).

Turda Salt Mine - after restoration using European grants
Turda Salt Mine - after restoration using European grants
In this brand new Transylvanian SPA Park is expected that tourism will grow and more than 185.000 tourists will visit it until 2015 (this estimation was mentioned in the project). It is more than a year since was done the mine restoration.

Turda Salt Mine - Top View
Turda Salt Mine - Top View
Turda Salt Mine Entrance
Turda Salt Mine Entrance

The visitors was invited to use the new entrance from Durgau village where was made a large parking lot and an entrance building with a contemporary revolutionary design.

Turda Salt Mine Elevator
The new elevator 

Many renewals were done underground: impressive access galleries, modern glass elevator, fantasist lighting system,  a carousel with big and small wheels, the playground for children / adults and tennis court, a great semicircular amphitheater hall where spectators are delighted by the great acoustics (if you are lucky to be there during a music show)

The amphitheater - Turda Salt Mine
The amphitheater

Some historical notes about this region and some old pictures from the official website:

In Turda is one of the most important salt deposit in Romania, Transylvania, being one of the biggest places of salt extraction in entire region since Thracian times. The underground mining is said that was put into systematic exploitation during Roman conquest period. In the official documents from the middle of the 13th century, is written that the privileges for using the salt extracted from Turda Salt Mine was offered to the Transylvanian Catholic Church leaders. During the Second World War the mines were used as anti-aircraft shelter. The mine entered the Romanian tourist map in 1992.

Turda Salt Mine - Rudolf section - image before restoration
Turda Salt Mine - Rudolf section - image before restoration

Turda Salt Mine - Big Room / Sala Mare -old image
Big Room / Sala Mare -old image
Over the years, inside the galleries was kept a micro-climate with temperatures between 11-12°C; humidity level 80% and air pressure 747-752 mm Hg (with small variations). This very healthy climate and the salt air ionization is favorable to breathing treatments and people can experience a great time inside the treatment areas with new features and modern design.

The mine is surrounded by a beautiful natural reserve (founded in 1938) with a unique landscape: Turda Gorges / Cheile Turzii, where can feel one with nature. In Romania are many scenic routes, and for sure Turda Gorges is one of the prettiest having more than 15km long  with arcades / towers formed by the Hăşdatele River and abrupt limestone walls (almost vertical) with 300m high.  The gorges walls  were formed more than 150 millions years ago, in Jurassic period and are the highest part of Apuseni Mountains, part of the "Apuseni Nature Park" - destination awarded in 2009 by EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence in "Tourism and Protected Area" section.

Turda Gorges / Cheile Turzii- photo courtesy of wikipedia
The flora and fauna is impressive in this untouched nature: there live more than 1000 plants and botanical species with European importance (ex: Salicornia europaea / Brânca, Aster tripolium / Albăstrica and Allium obliquum / Ceapa ciorii are protected plants) and habit many amphibians, mammals, invertebrates, reptiles and mountain birds (ex: Golden Eagle / Acvila Aurie / Aquila chrysaetos protected in European Areas).

Turda Gorges / Cheile Turzii is surrounded by a varieties of fascinating caves, and near the historical  Roman Castra Potaissa / Patavissa (today Turda).

Turda / Potaissa Roman Castra
Turda / Potaissa Roman Castra, picture courtesy of wikipedia

A day trip to Turda / Turda Gorges / Turda Salt Mine is a must for any visitor to Romania. It is an excellent destination for every tourist and a fascinating place where nature enthusiast can spend unforgettable time visiting, seeing, making photographs or filming, hiking, biking and free-climbing. It is beautiful, isn't it?